The United States responded to these events and passed the Sarbanes Oxley Act, 2002, which brought about fundamental changes in all aspects of corporate governance. The revised clause 49 of the listing agreement has broadened the scope of corporate governance in India and provides for whistleblowing guidelines, compliance reports with the issuance of certificates of conformity, an expanded definition of independent directors, disclosure obligations, etc.  As we have seen above, this revised clause has broadened the scope of corporate governance in publicly traded companies in India and should create a quality governance framework. . . .